What's Better for Reading Comprehension: Strategy or Content Knowledge Instruction?
Over the last year, I have noticed a new area of debate within the Reading Wars discourse, specifically relating to comprehension instruction. While constructivist or balanced literacy teachers have typically endorsed strategy based instruction. Many structured literacy advocates have argued for instead focusing on background knowledge and vocabulary instruction. Unfortunately, I don’t think either argument has been previously well proven within the scientific literature. Silverman, et al. 2022 and Elleman, et al. 2009 conducted meta-analyses that looked at vocabulary and background knowledge instruction. They found large effect sizes overall suggesting a strong efficacy. However, they also both conducted sub-analyses that only included the results for standardized tests. Both meta-analyses showed no significant effect for vocabulary or background knowledge instruction on standardized assessments. This would seem to suggest that vocabulary and background knowledge instruction only benefits comprehension outcomes for texts specific to the instruction and that background knowledge/vocabulary instruction does not improve general reading comprehension. In other words, it suggests that there is no transfer effect for background knowledge and vocabulary instruction.
Critics of strategy instruction often cite the 1988 landmark Baseball study by Recht, et al. In this study, the authors tested the students ability to understand a story about baseball before and after learning background knowledge/vocabulary regarding baseball. Their study showed students could understand the text better, after learning about baseball vocabulary and background knowledge. However, this study was measuring proximal effects, not distal effects. It showed that background knowledge and vocabulary instruction could increase a students ability to comprehend a specific text, but did not show that it improved general reading comprehension. In other words, it did not establish whether or not there was a transfer effect to background knowledge and vocabulary instruction, for comprehension.
In 2022 Filderman, et al conducted a meta-analysis of comprehension instruction that included studies on strategy, vocabulary, and background knowledge instruction. Their study showed that strategy instruction showed the highest outcomes. However, the difference between background knowledge instruction and strategy instruction was not statistically significant, suggesting that both types of instruction were effective. That said, Filderman, et al did not control for standardized, vs researcher designed assessments, so the study could not measure which type of instruction created a better transfer effect. Moreover Filderman et al, looked at higher grades and older students might benefit more from reading comprehension instruction, as their texts are more abstract.
While all of these meta-analyses were well done and have helped to propel the science of reading forward, they also all shared limitations. None of these studies coded for core vs intervention instruction. They used an input model that included all assessments and measured the general overall impact of reading comprehension, not what type of instruction best improved reading comprehension results. Moreover, most studies included in these meta-analyses looked at multiple types of comprehension instruction at once and compared to business as usual control groups. This means that these meta-analyses mostly measured the random effects of comprehension, but the authors did not control for fixed vs random effects.
For these reasons I did not believe the current scientific research could definitively answer several important questions:
What was the impact of comprehension instruction across different grades?
What was the best type of comprehension instruction if only standardized tests/distal measures were used?
How does a random vs fixed effects model impact our understanding of the comprehension literature?
How should comprehension instruction change for struggling readers, vs for core instruction?
Over the last 7 months, I have been working with a group of colleagues to answer these questions by conducting a meta-analysis on the topic that: included studies from k-12, coded for fixed vs random effects, coded for standardized vs researcher designed assessments, coded for demographic differences, and only included reading comprehension assessments. Today I am submitting our meta-analysis for peer-review. And while, I’m sure it will be months, before we succeed in getting the paper published, I wanted to share some of our preliminary non-peer reviewed findings. However, please note that this blog post is not the full meta-analysis. That said, while I will not be sharing our full meta-analysis, before the peer-review process is complete, I am happy to share the unpublished manuscript with any particularly keen individual. The full manuscript is much longer, and contains much more exhaustive statistical analysis, including 9 regression analyses.
Within our initial search for the meta-analysis we included all 43 studies from the Silverman study and all 64 studies from the Filderman study. We also did a systematic search of the ERIC database that yielded an additional 394 studies. However, most studies were excluded for being non-experimental and many more were excluded for not having a reading comprehension assessment. After all exclusions, we included 73 studies in total.
Studies were then coded for the following classifications:
Vocabulary: the explicit instruction of word meanings.
Background Knowledge/Content: explicit instruction on content, not directly related to literacy.
Cognitive Strategy/Skill: activating, inferring, monitoring-clarifying, questioning, searching-selecting, summarizing, and visualizing-organizing.
Meta-Cognition Strategies: Strategies meant to make the student more self-aware of the comprehension process, such as pausing, and self-questioning.
Miscellaneous Strategies: Reading comprehension strategies that are not cognitive or meta-cognition based.
Reciprocal Teaching: A pedagogy in which “students become the teacher in small group reading sessions. Teachers model, then help students learn to guide group discussions using four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. Once students have learned the strategies, they take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading a dialogue about what has been read.” (Reading Rockets, 2022).
Graphic Organizers: Organizing information, with visual tools.
Morphology: Comprehension instruction that focused on the meaning of word parts.
Technology Based: Comprehension instruction that utilized computer software or apps.
Standardized Assessment: A commonly used assessment made by a third party separate from the study researcher.
Researcher Designed Assessment: An assessment, (usually proximal) made specific for the study at hand.
Fixed Effect Study: A study in which both the treatment and control group received the same instruction, except for the addition of the treatment variable.
Random Effect Study: A study in which either the treatment group received multiple additional treatment variables or the control group received no specified instruction.
Intervention Study: A study on struggling readers.
Core Instruction Study: A study on regular classroom instruction.
The researcher designed assessments showed statistically significant effects for all types of instruction, especially background knowledge instruction and graphic organizers. However, when only standardized assessment results were included only reciprocal, cognitive strategy, meta-cognition strategy, vocabulary, and graphic organizer instruction showed statistically significant effects. Moreover, only reciprocal teaching showed an effect size greater than .39. Both strategy and vocabulary instruction showed equivalent, but small effect sizes. These results changed significantly across demographics and grades though. Background knowledge instruction results were insignificant, across all standardized assessment moderator variables, suggesting that there is no transfer effect to background knowledge instruction. That said, this does not mean teachers should not teach background knowledge, but rather it should be targeted towards what the students are reading/being assessed on.
In the early grades, vocabulary instruction showed the greatest benefits. Whereas in the later grades strategy instruction was more effective. For core instruction only cognitive strategy instruction showed a statistically significant benefit for core instruction. Whereas for struggling readers, reciprocal teaching, graphic organizers, and vocabulary instruction proved to be the most valuable.
Of course, the debate for using strategy vs vocabulary/background knowledge, might in itself be a false dichotomy, as the debate seems to be built on an “either or'' model. This is problematic, because we found no evidence that using just one form of comprehension instruction at a time produced better outcomes. Indeed, we ran a Pearson and T-test analysis on the number of types of comprehension instruction used within a study and the mean effect size found. We found a Pearson effect size of .09 and a p-value of .10 suggesting that the number of types of comprehension instruction used at one time had no meaningful impact on reading comprehension results. Since both strategy and vocabulary instruction showed statistically significant benefits, we believe it makes the most sense to teach both.
Written by Nathaniel Hansford, Sky McGlynn, and Joshua King
Last Edited 2023-02-20
- Apel, K., Brimo, D., Diehm, E., & Apel, L. (2013). Morphological awareness intervention with kindergartners and first‐ and second‐grade students from low socioeconomic status homes: A feasibility study. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 44 (2), 161 – 173. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1044/0161-1461(2012/12-0042)
- Apthorp, H., Randel, B., Cherasaro, T., Clark, T., McKeown, M., & Beck, I. (2012). Effects of a supplemental vocabulary program on word knowledge and passage comprehension. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 5 (2), 160 – 188. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345747.2012.660240
- Arthur, A.M., & Davis, D.L. (2016). A pilot study of the impact of double‐dose robust vocabulary instruction on children's vocabulary growth. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 9 (2), 173 – 200. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345747.2015.1126875
-AlAdwani, A., AlFadley, A., AlGasab, M., & Alnwaiem, A. F. (2021). The Effect of Using KWL (Know-Want-Learned) Strategy on Reading Comprehension of 5th Grade EFL Students in Kuwait. English Language Teaching, 15(1), 79-91. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v15n1p79
-Antoniou, F., & Souvignier, E. (2007). Strategy instruction in reading comprehension: An intervention study for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 5(1), 41–57.
-Artuso, Caterina & Carretti, Barbara & Palladino, Paola. (2019). Short-term training on working memory updating and metacognition in primary school: The effect on reading comprehension. School Psychology International. 40. 014303431988167. 10.1177/0143034319881671.
-August, D., Artzi, L., Barr, C., & Francis, D. (2018). The moderating influence of instructional intensity and word type on the acquisition of academic vocabulary in young English language learners. Reading and Writing, 31 (4), 965 – 989. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1007/s11145-018-9821-1
-Babapour, Maryam & Ahangari, Saeideh & Ahour, Touran. (2018). The effect of shadow reading and collaborative strategic reading on EFL learners’ reading comprehension across two proficiency levels. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. 13. 1-13. 10.1080/17501229.2018.1465059.
-Baechle, C. L., & John Lian, M. G. (1990). The effects of direct feedback and practice on metaphor performance in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(7), 451–456.
-Baker, S.K., Santoro, L.E., Chard, D.J., Fien, H., Park, Y., & Otterstedt, J. (2013). An evaluation of an explicit read aloud intervention taught in whole‐classroom formats in first grade. The Elementary School Journal, 113 (3), 331 – 358. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1086/668503
-Bakken, J. P., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1997). Reading comprehension of expository science material and students with learning disabilities: A comparison of strategies. The Journal of Special Education, 31(3), 300–324.
-Barth, A. E., & Elleman, A. (2017). Evaluating the impact of a multistrategy inference intervention for middle-grade struggling readers. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 48(1), 31–41.
-Barth, A. E., Vaughn, S., Capin, P., Cho, E., Stillman-Spisak, S., Martinez, L., & Kincaid, H. (2016). Effects of a text-processing comprehension intervention on struggling middle school readers. Topics in Language Disorders, 36(4), 368–389.
-Bergerud, D., Lovitt, T. C., & Horton, S. (1988). The effectiveness of textbook adaptations in life science for high school students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21(2), 70–76.
-Berkeley, S., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2011). Reading comprehension strategy instruction and attribution retraining for secondary students with learning and other mild disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(1), 18–32.
-Billingsley, B. S. (1987). An analysis of the effects of pre-reading activities on the comprehension monitoring of learning disabled adolescents [Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Blonder, Megan & Skinner, Christopher & Ciancio, Dennis & Cazzell, Samantha & Scott, Katie & Jaquett, Carrie & Ruddy, Jonah & Thompson, Kelly. (2018). A Comparison of Comprehension Accuracy and Rate: Repeated Readings and Listening While Reading in Second-Grade Students. Contemporary School Psychology. 23. 10.1007/s40688-017-0169-3.
-Boardman, A. G., Buckley, P., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Scornavacco, K., & Klingner, J. K. (2016). Relationship between implementation of collaborative strategic reading and student outcomes for adolescents with disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(6), 644–657.
-Borenstein, M. (2009). Effect sizes for continuous data. In H. Cooper, L.V. Hedges, & J.C. Valentine (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis and meta‐analysis (2nd ed., pp. 221 – 235). New York, NY : Russell Sage Foundation.
-Brimo, D. (2016). Evaluating the effectiveness of a morphological awareness intervention: A pilot study. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 38 (1), 35 – 45. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/1525740115604592
-Burns, M. K., Dean, V. J., & Foley, S. (2004). Preteaching unknown key words with incremental rehearsal to improve reading fluency and comprehension with children identified as reading disabled. Journal of School Psychology, 42(4), 303–314.
-Campbell, L. O., Howard, C., Lambie, G. W., Rowe, R., Levesque, S., & Young, K. (2022). The efficacy of a computer-adaptive reading program on grade 5 students’ reading achievement scores. Education and Information Technologies, 27(3), 8147-8163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-022-10953-5
-Chan, L. K., Cole, P. G., & Morris, J. N. (1990). Effects of instruction in the use of a visual-imagery strategy on the reading-comprehension competence of disabled and average readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 13(1), 2–11.
-Cirino, P. T., Miciak, J., Gerst, E., Barnes, M. A., Vaughn, S., Child, A., & Huston-Warren, E. (2017). Executive function, self-regulated learning, and reading comprehension: A training study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(4), 450–467.
-Clarke, P. J., Snowling, M. J., Truelove, E., & Hulme, C. (2010). Ameliorating children’s reading-comprehension difficulties: A randomized controlled trial. Psychological Science, 21(8), 1106–1116.
-Connor, C. M., Phillips, B. M., Kim, Y. S. G., Lonigan, C. J., Kaschak, M. P., Crowe, E., ... & Al Otaiba, S. (2018). Examining the efficacy of targeted component interventions on language and literacy for third and fourth graders who are at risk of comprehension difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 22(6), 462–484.
-Connor, C.M., Day, S.L., Zargar, E., Wood, T.S., Taylor, K.S., Jones, M.R., & Hwang, J.K. (2019). Building word knowledge, learning strategies, and metacognition with the
-Connor, C.M., Phillips, B.M., Kim, Y.‐S.G., Lonigan, C.J., Kaschak, M.P., Crowe, E., ... Al Otaiba, S. (2018). Examining the efficacy of targeted component interventions on language and literacy for third and fourth graders who are at risk of comprehension difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 22 (6), 462 – 484. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/10888438.2018.1481409
-Coyne, M.D., McCoach, D.B., Loftus, S., Zipoli, R., Ruby, M., Crevecoeur, Y.C., & Kapp, S. (2010). Direct and extended vocabulary instruction in kindergarten: Investigating transfer effects. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 3 (2), 93 – 120. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345741003592410
-Coyne, M.D., McCoach, D.B., Ware, S., Austin, C.R., Loftus‐Rattan, S.M., & Baker, D.L. (2019). Racing against the vocabulary gap: Matthew effects in early vocabulary instruction and intervention. Exceptional Children, 85 (2), 163 – 179. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/0014402918789162
-Crevecoeur, Y.C., Coyne, M.D., & McCoach, D.B. (2014). English language learners and English‐only learners' response to direct vocabulary instruction. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 30 (1), 51 – 78. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/10573569.2013.758943
-Dalton, B., Proctor, C.P., Uccelli, P., Mo, E., & Snow, C.E. (2011). Designing for diversity: The role of reading strategies and interactive vocabulary in a digital reading environment for fifth‐grade monolingual English and bilingual students. Journal of Literacy Research, 43 (1), 68 – 100. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/1086296X10397872
-Daunic, A., Corbett, N., Smith, S., Barnes, T., Santiago‐Poventud, L., Chalfant, P., ... Gleaton, J. (2013). Brief report: Integrating social‐emotional learning with literacy instruction: An intervention for children at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 39 (1), 43 – 51. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/019874291303900106
-Elleman, A.M., Lindo, E.J., Morphy, P., & Compton, D.L. (2009). The impact of vocabulary instruction on passage‐level comprehension of school‐age children: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2 (1), 1 – 44. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345740802539200
-Esser, M. M. S. (2001). The effects of metacognitive strategy training and attribution retraining on reading comprehension in African-American students with learning disabilities [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Faggella-Luby, M., & Wardwell, M. (2011). RTI in a middle school: Findings and practical implications of a tier 2 reading comprehension study. Learning Disability Quarterly, 34(1), 35–49.
-Filderman, M. J., Austin, C. R., Boucher, A. N., O'Donnell, K., & Swanson, E. A. (2022). A meta-analysis of the effects of reading comprehension interventions on the reading comprehension outcomes of struggling readers in third through 12th grades. Exceptional Children, 88(2), 163-184. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/00144029211050860
-Filippini, A.L., Gerber, M.M., & Leafstedt, J.M. (2012). A vocabulary‐added reading intervention for English learners at‐risk of reading difficulties. International Journal of Special Education, 27 (3), 14 – 26.
-Fogarty, Melissa & Coyne, Michael & Simmons, Leslie & Simmons, Deborah & Henri, Maria & Kwok, Oi-Man & Ware, Sharon & Dalton, Kevin & Williams, Kimberly & Wang, Huan. (2020). Effects of Technology-Mediated Vocabulary Intervention for Third-Grade Students with Reading Difficulties. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. 13. 1-27. 10.1080/19345747.2019.1698086.
-Fuchs, D., Hendricks, E., Walsh, M. E., Fuchs, L. S., Gilbert, J. K., Zhang Tracy, W., ... & Peng, P. (2018). Evaluating a multidimensional reading comprehension program and reconsidering the lowly reputation of tests of near‐transfer. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 33(1), 11–23.
-Gajria, M., & Salvia, J. (1992). The effects of summarization instruction on text comprehension of students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 58(6), 508–516.
-Galloway, Emily & Uccelli, Paola. (2019). Beyond reading comprehension: exploring the additional contribution of Core Academic Language Skills to early adolescents’ written summaries. Reading and Writing. 32. 10.1007/s11145-018-9880-3.
-Gellert, A.S., Arnbak, E., Wischmann, S., & Elbro, C. (2021). Morphological Intervention for Students With Limited Vocabulary Knowledge: Short- and Long-Term Transfer Effects. Reading Research Quarterly, 56(3), 583– 601. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.325
-Gersten, R., Dimino, J., Jayanthi, M., Kim, J.S., & Santoro, L.E. (2010). Teacher study group: Impact of the professional development model on reading instruction and student outcomes in first grade classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 47 (3), 694 – 739. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.3102/0002831209361208
-Goldstein, H., Ziolkowski, R.A., Bojczyk, K.E., Marty, A., Schneider, N., Harpring, J., & Haring, C.D. (2017). Academic vocabulary learning in first through third grade in low‐income schools: Effects of automated supplemental instruction. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60 (11), 3237 – 3258. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-17-0100
-Goodman, A. D. G. (1993). A Comparison Study of the Effects of Two Visual Imagery Strategies on Reading Comprehension in Learning Disabled Students [Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-School of Education- San Diego Campus]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Goodwin, Amanda & Ahn, Soyeon. (2013). A Meta-Analysis of Morphological Interventions in English: Effects on Literacy Outcomes for School-Age Children. Scientific Studies of Reading. 17. 10.1080/10888438.2012.689791.
-Graham, L., & Wong, B. Y. (1993). Comparing two modes of teaching a question-answering strategy for enhancing reading comprehension: Didactic and self-instructional training. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26(4), 270–279.
-Graham, L., Graham, A., & West, C. (2015). From research to practice: The effect of multi‐component vocabulary instruction on increasing vocabulary and comprehension performance in social studies. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 8 (1), 147 – 160.
-Grossman, P. (2022, January 11). Is It Time to Drop “Finding the Main Idea” and Teach Reading in a New Way? Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/article/it-time-drop-finding-main-idea-and-teach-reading-new-way/
-Hassinger‐Das, B., Jordan, N.C., & Dyson, N. (2015). Reading stories to learn math: Mathematics vocabulary instruction for children with early numeracy difficulties. The Elementary School Journal, 116 (2), 242 – 264. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1086/683986
-Hattan, Courtney & Alexander, Patricia. (2020). The Effects of Knowledge Activation Training on Rural Middle-School Students' Expository Text Comprehension: A Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Educational Psychology. 113. 10.1037/edu0000623.
-Hebert, M., Bohaty, J. J., Nelson, J. R., & Lambert, M. C. (2018). Identifying and discriminating expository text structures: An experiment with 4th and 5th grade struggling readers. Reading and Writing, 31(9), 2115–2145.
-Holmes, B. C. (1985). The effects of a strategy and sequenced materials on the inferential-comprehension of disabled readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 18(9), 542–546.
-Horne, J. K. (2017). Reading comprehension: A computerized intervention with primary‐age poor readers. Dyslexia, 23(2), 119–140.
-Huang, S. (2015). Mixed‐method research on learning vocabulary through technology reveals vocabulary growth in second‐grade students. Reading Psychology, 36 (1), 1 – 30. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/02702711.2013.808723
-Jayanthi, M., Dimino, J., Gersten, R., Taylor, M.J., Haymond, K., Smolkowski, K., & Newman‐Gonchar, R. (2018). The impact of teacher study groups in vocabulary on teaching practice, teacher knowledge, and student vocabulary knowledge: A large‐scale replication study. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11 (1), 83 – 108. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345747.2017.1327625
-Jenkins, J. R., Heliotis, J. D., Stein, M. L., & Haynes, M. C. (1987). Improving reading comprehension by using paragraph restatements. Exceptional Children, 54(1), 54–59.
-Jian, Yu-Cin. (2021). The immediate and delayed effects of text–diagram reading instruction on reading comprehension and learning processes: evidence from eye movements. Reading and Writing. 34. 1-26. 10.1007/s11145-020-10089-3.
-Jiang, Hui & Logan, Jessica. (2019). Improving Reading Comprehension in the Primary Grades: Mediated Effects of a Language-Focused Classroom Intervention. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 62. 1-17. 10.1044/2019_JSLHR-L-19-0015.
-Jitendra, A. K., Kay Hoppes, M., & Xin, Y. P. (2000). Enhancing main idea comprehension for students with learning problems: The role of a summarization strategy and self-monitoring instruction. The Journal of Special Education, 34(3), 127–139.
-Johnson-Glenberg, M. C. (2000). Training reading comprehension in adequate decoders/poor comprehenders: Verbal versus visual strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 772–782.
-Jones, S.M., LaRusso, M., Kim, J., Kim, H.Y., Selman, R., Uccelli, P., ... Snow, C. (2019). Experimental effects of Word Generation on vocabulary, academic language, perspective taking, and reading comprehension in high‐poverty schools. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 12 (3), 448 – 483. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345747.2019.1615155
-Kent, S., Wanzek, J., Swanson, E. A., & Vaughn, S. (2015). Team‐based learning for students with high‐incidence disabilities in high school social studies classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 30(1), 3–14.
-Kim, A. H., Vaughn, S., Klingner, J. K., Woodruff, A. L., Klein Reutebuch, C., & Kouzekanani, K. (2006). Improving the reading comprehension of middle school students with disabilities through computer-assisted collaborative strategic reading. Remedial and Special Education, 27(4), 235–249.
-Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Arguelles, M. E., Tejero Hughes, M., & Ahwee Leftwich, S. (2004). Collaborative strategic reading: “Real-world” lessons from classroom teachers. Remedial and Special Education, 25(5), 291–302.
-Knox, A. M. (2008). Reading strategies for middle school students with learning disabilities (Publication No. AAI3335184) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Kong, J. E. (2009). Effects of comprehension strategies on test scores of third grade special education students. [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Language and Reading Research Consortium, Jiang, H., & Davis, D. (2017). Let's Know! Proximal impacts on prekindergarten through grade 3 students' comprehension‐related skills. The Elementary School Journal, 118 (2), 177 – 206. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1086/694220
-Levin, M. C. (1989). An experimental investigation of reciprocal teaching and informed strategies for learning taught to learning-disabled intermediate school students [Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Lo, C.-C., Wen, H., & Lin, Y.-S. (2021). The Effect of Readers Theater on EFL Seventh-Graders’ Reading and Listening Comprehension. SAGE Open, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211038388
-Lovett, M. W., Borden, S. L., Warren-Chaplin, P. M., Lacerenza, L., DeLuca, T., & Giovinazzo, R. (1996). Text comprehension training for disabled readers: An evaluation of reciprocal teaching and text analysis training programs. Brain and Language, 54(3), 447–480.
-Lysynchuk, L. M., Pressley, M., & Vye, N. J. (1990). Reciprocal teaching improves standardized reading-comprehension performance in poor comprehenders. The Elementary School Journal, 90(5), 469–484.
-Malone, L. D., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1992). Reading comprehension instruction: Summarization and self-monitoring training for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 58(3), 270–279.
-Mancilla‐Martinez, J. (2010). Word meanings matter: Cultivating English vocabulary knowledge in fifth‐grade Spanish‐speaking language minority learners. TESOL Quarterly, 44 (4), 669 – 699. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.5054/tq.2010.213782
-Marulis, Loren & Neuman, Susan. (2010). The Effects of Vocabulary Intervention on Young Children’s Word Learning A Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research. 80. 300-335. 10.3102/0034654310377087.
Browder, Diane & Xin, Yan Ping. (1998). A Meta-Analysis and Review of Sight Word Research and Its Implications for Teaching Functional Reading to Individuals with Moderate and Severe Disabilities. The Journal of Special Education. 32. 130-153. 10.1177/002246699803200301.
-Mason, L. H., Davison, M. D., Hammer, C. S., Miller, C. A., & Glutting, J. J. (2013). Knowledge, writing, and language outcomes for a reading comprehension and writing intervention. Reading and Writing, 26(7), 1133–1158.
-McElvain, C. M. (2010). Transactional literature circles and the reading comprehension of English learners in the mainstream classroom. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(2), 178–205.
-McKeown, M.G., & Beck, I.L. (2014). Effects of vocabulary instruction on measures of language processing: Comparing two approaches. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29 (4), 520 – 530. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.06.002
-Mead, L. J. (2010). The effects of using four powerful comprehension strategies in a gradual release lesson design and learning-style preferences on reading comprehension and self-perception of struggling readers [Doctoral dissertation, Western Connecticut State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Michaux, R. P. (2011). The effects of reciprocal teaching on at-risk 10th grade students (Publication No. AAI3479233) [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Miranda, A., Villaescusa, M. I., & Vidal-Abarca, E. (1997). Is attribution retraining necessary? Use of self-regulation procedures for enhancing the reading comprehension strategies of children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(5), 503-512.
--Morris, R.D., Lovett, M.W., Wolf, M., Sevcik, R.A., Steinbach, K.A., Frijters, J.C., & Shapiro, M.B. (2012). Multiple‐component remediation for developmental reading disabilities: IQ, socioeconomic status, and race as factors in remedial outcome. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45 (2), 99 – 127. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/0022219409355472
-Mokhtari, K., & Velten, J. (2015). Strengthening academic vocabulary with word generation helps sixth-grade students improve reading comprehension. Middle Grades Research Journal, 10(3), 23–42.
-Morfidi, E., Mikropoulos, A., & Rogdaki, A. (2018). Using concept mapping to improve poor readers’ understanding of expository text. Education and Information Technologies, 23(1), 271–286.
-Morris, S.B. (2008). Estimating effect sizes from pretest‐posttest‐control group designs. Organizational Research Methods, 11 (2), 364 – 386. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/1094428106291059
-National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence‐based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Washington, DC : National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
-Nelson, J.R., Vadasy, P.F., & Sanders, E.A. (2011). Efficacy of a Tier 2 supplemental root word vocabulary and decoding intervention with kindergarten Spanish‐speaking English learners. Journal of Literacy Research, 43 (2), 184 – 211. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/1086296X11403088
-Neuman, S.B., & Kaefer, T. (2018). Developing low‐income children's vocabulary and content knowledge through a shared book reading program. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 52, 15 – 24. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2017.12.001
-Nielsen, D.C., & Friesen, L.D. (2012). A study of the effectiveness of a small‐group intervention on the vocabulary and narrative development of at‐risk kindergarten children. Reading Psychology, 33 (3), 269 – 299. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/02702711.2010.508671
-Patton, Samuel & Fuchs, Douglas & Hendricks, Emma & Pennell, Annie & Walsh, Meagan & Fuchs, Lynn & Tracy, Wen & Haga, Loulee. (2022). An Experimental Study to Strengthen Students’ Comprehension of Informational Texts: Is Teaching for Transfer Important?. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice. 37. 10.1111/ldrp.12276.
-Phillips, K. M. (2009). Using graphic organizers to improve at-risk students' reading comprehension of expository text [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Riverside]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Pilonieta, Paola & Hathaway, Jennifer & Medina, Adriana & Casto, Amanda. (2019). The Impact of Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction on First- and Second-Grade At-Risk Students. Journal of Education. 199. 002205741985434. 10.1177/0022057419854346.
-Powell, S.R., & Driver, M.K. (2015). The influence of mathematics vocabulary instruction embedded within addition tutoring for first‐grade students with mathematics difficulty. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38 (4), 221 – 233. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/0731948714564574
-Proctor, C.P., Dalton, B., Uccelli, P., Biancarosa, G., Mo, E., Snow, C., & Neugebauer, S. (2011). Improving comprehension online: Effects of deep vocabulary instruction with bilingual and monolingual fifth graders. Reading and Writing, 24 (5), 517 – 544. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1007/s11145-009-9218-2
-Proctor, C.P., Silverman, R.D., Harring, J.R., Jones, R.L., & Hartranft, A.M. (2020). Teaching bilingual learners: Effects of a language‐based reading intervention on academic language and reading comprehension in grades 4 and 5. Reading Research Quarterly, 55 (1), 95 – 122. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1002/rrq.258
-Puhalla, E.M. (2011). Enhancing the vocabulary knowledge of first‐grade children with supplemental booster instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 32 (6), 471 – 481. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/0741932510362495
-Pullen, P.C., Tuckwiller, E.D., Konold, T.R., Maynard, K.L., & Coyne, M.D. (2010). A tiered intervention model for early vocabulary instruction: The effects of tiered instruction for young students at risk for reading disability. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25 (3), 110 – 123. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2010.00309.x
-Recht and Leslie published their research in Recht, D.R. and Leslie, L., 1988. Effect of prior knowledge on good and poor readers’ memory of text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), p.16.
-Reed, Deborah. (2008). A Synthesis of Morphology Interventions and Effects on Reading Outcomes for Students in Grades K–12. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice. 23. 36 - 49. 10.1111/j.1540-5826.2007.00261.x.
-Reed, D. K., Stevenson, N., & LeBeau, B. C. (2019). Reading comprehension assessment: The effects of reading the items aloud before or after reading the passage. The Elementary School Journal, 120(2), 300-318.
-Reed, Deborah & Stevenson, Nathan & LeBeau, Brandon. (2019). Reading Comprehension Assessment: The Effects of Reading the Items Aloud Before or After Reading the Passage. The Elementary School Journal. 120. 000-000. 10.1086/705784.
-Rhett, T. Y. (2011). The effectiveness of a reading intervention pull-out program (Publication No. AAI3487011) [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Ronimus, Miia & Eklund, Kenneth & Pesu, Laura & Lyytinen, Heikki. (2019). Supporting struggling readers with digital game-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development. 67. 10.1007/s11423-019-09658-3.
-Rooney, J. (1997). The effects of story grammar strategy training on the story comprehension, self-efficacy and attributions of learning-disabled students [Doctoral dissertation, City University of New York]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
-Rosenshine, Barak & Meister, Carla. (1993). Reciprocal Teaching: A Review of 19 Experimental Studies. Technical Report No. 574.
-Savage, Robert & Georgiou, George & Burgos, Giovani & Parrila, Rauno & Maiorino, Kristina & Dunn, Kristy. (2019). The Effects of Teaching Complex Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondences: Evidence From a Dual Site Cluster Trial With At-Risk Grade 2 Students. Scientific Studies of Reading. 10.1080/10888438.2019.1669607.
-Silverman, R., Kim, Y.‐S., Hartranft, A., Nunn, S., & McNeish, D. (2017). Effects of a multimedia enhanced reading buddies program on kindergarten and grade 4 vocabulary and comprehension. The Journal of Educational Research, 110 (4), 391 – 404. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/00220671.2015.1103690
-Silverman, R.D., Martin‐Beltran, M., Peercy, M.M., Hartranft, A.M., McNeish, D.M., Artzi, L., & Nunn, S. (2017). Effects of a cross‐age peer learning program on the vocabulary and comprehension of English learners and non‐English learners in elementary school. The Elementary School Journal, 117 (3), 485 – 512. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1086/690210
-Simmons, D., Hairrell, A., Edmonds, M., Vaughn, S., Larsen, R., Willson, V., ... Byrns, G. (2010). A comparison of multiple‐strategy methods: Effects on fourth‐grade students' general and content‐specific reading comprehension and vocabulary development. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 3 (2), 121 – 156. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345741003596890
-Solís, M., Vaughn, S., & Scammacca, N. (2015). The effects of an intensive reading intervention for ninth graders with very low reading comprehension. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 30(3), 104–113.
-Stevens, R. J. (1988). Effects of strategy training on the identification of the main idea of expository passages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), 21–26.
-Swanson, E., Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Fall, A. M., Roberts, G., Hall, C., & Miller, V. L. (2017). Middle school reading comprehension and content learning intervention for below-average readers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 33(1), 37–53.
-Swanson, E., Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., & Fall, A. M. (2015). Improving reading comprehension and social studies knowledge among middle school students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 81(4), 426–442.
-Taboada Barber, Ana M & Guthrie, John. (2004). Growth of Cognitive Strategies for Reading Comprehension.
-Therrien, W. J., & Hughes, C. (2008). Comparison of Repeated Reading and Question Generation on Students' Reading Fluency and Comprehension. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 6(1), 1–16.
-Tong, F., Irby, B.J., Lara‐Alecio, R., Yoon, M., & Mathes, P.G. (2010). Hispanic English learners' responses to longitudinal English instructional intervention and the effect of gender: A multilevel analysis. The Elementary School Journal, 110 (4), 542 – 566. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1086/651195
-Tonini, Elisabetta & Lecce, Serena & Del Sette, Paola & Bianco, Federica & Canal, Paolo & Bambini, Valentina. (2022). Efficacy and benefits of the MetaCom training to promote metaphor comprehension in typical development. First Language. 42. 014272372210812. 10.1177/01427237221081201.
-Toste, J. R., Vaughn, S., Martinez, L. R., Roberts, G. J., & Klingner, J. K. (2019). Content-area reading comprehension and teachers’ use of instructional time: effects on middle school students’ social studies knowledge. Reading and Writing, 32(7), 1705-1722. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-018-9925-7
-Vadasy, P.F., & Sanders, E.A. (2015). Incremental learning of difficult words in story contexts: The role of spelling and pronouncing new vocabulary. Reading and Writing, 28 (3), 371 – 394. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1007/s11145-014-9529-9
-Vadasy, P.F., & Sanders, E.A. (2016). Attention to orthographic and phonological word forms in vocabulary instruction for kindergarten English learners. Reading Psychology, 37 (6), 833 – 866. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/02702711.2015.1116477
-Vadasy, P.F., Nelson, J.R., & Sanders, E.A. (2013). Longer term effects of a Tier 2 kindergarten vocabulary intervention for English learners. Remedial and Special Education, 34 (2), 91 – 101. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/0741932511420739
-Vadasy, P.F., Sanders, E.A., & Logan Herrera, B. (2015). Efficacy of rich vocabulary instruction in fourth‐ and fifth‐grade classrooms. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8 (3), 325 – 365. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345747.2014.933495
-Vadasy, P.F., Sanders, E.A., & Nelson, J.R. (2015). Effectiveness of supplemental kindergarten vocabulary instruction for English learners: A randomized study of immediate and longer‐term effects of two approaches. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8 (4), 490 – 529. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345747.2015.1033120
-Van Den Bos, K. P., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Aarnoutse, C. A. (1998). Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers. Reading and Writing, 10(6), 471–498.
-Vaughn, S., Chard, D. J., Bryant, D. P., Coleman, M., Tyler, B. J., Linan-Thompson, S., & Kouzekanani, K. (2000). Fluency and comprehension interventions for third-grade students. Remedial and Special Education, 21(6), 325–335.
-Vaughn, S., Fall, A. M., Roberts, G., Wanzek, J., Swanson, E., & Martinez, L. R. (2019). Class percentage of students with reading difficulties on content knowledge and comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52(2), 120–134.
-Vaughn, S., Klingner, J. K., Swanson, E. A., Boardman, A. G., Roberts, G., Mohammed, S. S., & Stillman-Spisak, S. J. (2011). Efficacy of collaborative strategic reading with middle school students. American Educational Research Journal, 48(4), 938–964.
-Wagner, D. L., & Espin, C. A. (2015). The reading fluency and comprehension of fifth-and sixth-grade struggling readers across brief tests of various intervention approaches. Reading Psychology, 36(7), 545–578.
-Wang, Xue & Mayer, Richard & Zhou, Pu & Lin, Lin. (2020). Benefits of interactive graphic organizers in online learning: Evidence for generative learning theory.. Journal of Educational Psychology. 113. 10.1037/edu0000606.
-Weisberg, R., & Balajthy, E. (1990). Development of disabled readers’ metacomprehension ability through summarization training using expository text: Results of three studies. Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities International, 6(2), 117–136.
-Wijekumar, K., Meyer, B. J., Lei, P., Beerwinkle, A. L., & Joshi, M. (2019). Supplementing teacher knowledge using web‐based Intelligent Tutoring System for the Text Structure Strategy to improve content area reading comprehension with fourth‐and fifth‐grade struggling readers. Dyslexia, 26(2), 120–136.
-Williams, J. P., Brown, L. G., Silverstein, A. K., & de Cani, J. S. (1994). An instructional program in comprehension of narrative themes for adolescents with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17(3), 205–221.
-Wissinger, Daniel & De La Paz, Susan & Jackson, Cara. (2020). The Effects of Historical Reading and Writing Strategy Instruction With Fourth-Through Sixth-Grade Students. Journal of Educational Psychology. 10.1037/edu0000463.
-Wood, C., Fitton, L., Petscher, Y., Rodriguez, E., Sunderman, G., & Lim, T. (2018). The effect of e‐book vocabulary instruction on Spanish‐English speaking children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61 (8), 1945 – 1969. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-17-0368
-Wright, T.S., & Cervetti, G.N. (2017). A systematic review of the research on vocabulary instruction that impacts text comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 52 (2), 203 – 226. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1002/rrq.163
-Wright, T.S., & Gotwals, A.W. (2017). Supporting kindergartners' science talk in the context of an integrated science and disciplinary literacy curriculum. The Elementary School Journal, 117 (3), 513 – 537. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1086/690273
-Young, Chase & Durham, Patricia & Miller, Melinda & Rasinski, Timothy & Lane, Forrest. (2019). Improving reading comprehension with readers theater. The Journal of Educational Research. 112. 1-12. 10.1080/00220671.2019.1649240.
-Yussof, Yusfarina & Jamian, Abdul & Roslan, Samsilah & Zainon Hamzah, Zaitul Azma & Kabilan, Muhamad. (2012). Enhancing Reading Comprehension through Cognitive and Graphic Strategies: A Constructivism Approach. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 64. 151–160. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.018.
-Zanowicz, M. (1996). Story-retelling effects. [Doctoral dissertation, Kean College of New Jersey]. Education Resources Information Center.
-Zipoli, R.P., Jr., Coyne, M.D., & McCoach, D.B. (2011). Enhancing vocabulary intervention for kindergarten students: Strategic integration of semantically related and embedded word review. Remedial and Special Education, 32 (2), 131 – 143. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/0741932510361262