Multi-Sensory Instruction:

One complex question that has nagged at me is the issue of multi-sensory instruction. Reading Rockets defines multi-sensory instruction as “instruction [that] combines listening, speaking, reading, and a tactile or kinesthetic activity.” With this instructional approach teachers often have students do things like use manipulatives, use hand gestures, or even sometimes draw letters in sand. Within the science of reading communities, this pedagogical concept is very popular, especially with dyslexia advocates. This likely goes back to the popularity of the Orton Gillingham approaches, which have emphasized the importance of multi-sensory instruction. Indeed, one of the major Orton Gillingham training companies calls themselves the Institute for Multisensory Education. 

 

Admittedly, when I first started to research this topic, I was cautiously skeptical. In part because this pedagogical concept seems (while not holistically the same) very similar to the idea of teaching students to learning styles, which has been largely debunked within the scientific community. In regards to teaching to learning styles, meta analysis literature typically shows low outcomes and most neuro-scientists reject the model. Moreover, teaching to learning styles has logical flaws. As the more different ways we try to teach a concept, the greater the chance we diminish the specificity of our instruction. For example, what is a more specific way to teach long division, with a dance or with a white board? Similarly the more multi-sensory our instruction is, the greater the likelihood is that our instruction is less specific to the curricular goal. For example, writing letters with a pencil or a keyboard is more specific than writing them in sand, as it more closely resembles our end goals. 
 

Of course, as I have previously pointed out rationalist arguments are not enough to determine if something is scientifically true, to validate the efficacy of a pedagogical program, meta-analytic data is necessary. However, to the best of my knowledge, there has not been any meta-analyses done on the topic. That being said, I have seen many point to Dr Elizabeth. Steven’s meta-analysis of  Orton Gillingham phonics instruction as being determinative for this topic, as the Orton Gillingham programs are typically multi-sensory based.

 

Her meta-analysis on the topic, found a mean effect size for outcomes in phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, spelling of  .22 and for outcomes in comprehension and vocabulary a mean effect size of .14. With a mean overall effect size of .22. These results are barely statistically significant and would indicate an overall low effectiveness. It is also important to note that these results are in line with other meta-analyses on the topic. The NRP found a mean ES of .21 and my non peer-reviewed meta-analysis of Orton Gillingham programs found a mean ES of  .37, which is significantly higher than the NRP or Stevens result, but still lower than the mean effect size for phonics programs. Across the literature, it seems quite clear that the Orton Gillingham phonics program studies show lower results than most other phonics programs (with the exception of SPIRE studies). 

 

Please see the graph below, for reference:

The Orton Gillingham approach is not only very popular, but its proponents  have been instrumental in paving the way for both the science of reading and for dyslexia advocacy. Moreover, the programs appear generally speaking to align well with the science of reading and admittedly, I do not have a good explanation as to why they show lower outcomes. I originally hypothesized (the same as Timothy Shanahan) that it was because the Orton Gillingham studies were mostly on severely dyslexic students and indeed this matched the findings in the NRP meta-analysis. However, in my own meta-analysis of reading programs, I found significantly higher results for phonics studies that looked at dyslexic instruction, compared to class instruction. My next hypothesis was that the reason these programs under performed was because of the multi-sensory component. 

 

However, when I started to dive deeper into this particular area of research I realized that most phonics programs included some element of multi-sensory instruction. With this fact in mind, I do not believe that a meta-analysis of Orton Gillingham programs is necessarily a good direct measure for the efficacy of multi-sensory instruction. I wanted to be able to identify which phonics programs were multi-sensory and which ones were not. However, neatly defining programs in this way was impractical, as such an identification appears to be somewhat inaccurate. Indeed there was less of a clear cut dichotomy with phonics programs and more of a continuum, with some programs being purely multi-sensory and others being more multi-modality (meaning they taught phonics with a variety of different approaches, but did not emphasize the sensory/tactile components as much. To me, this in turn raised two challenging research problems: 

  1. Was the impact of phonics programs due to phonics or due to multi-sensory instruction?

  2. How do we measure the effect of multi-sensory instruction within phonics studies, if most studies have some multi-sensory elements? 

 

To attempt to answer this question, I decided to do a sub-analysis of my language programs meta-analysis. I ranked each program with a number of 1-3 based on how multisensory the program was. 1 being the least multisensory and 3 being the most. Jolly Phonics, Wilson, and Take Flight were ranked as 3. Spire, Words Their Way, Empower, and Reading Simplified were ranked as 2. Corrective Reading, Lexia, Open Court, Reading Mastery, and Spelling Mastery were ranked as 1. In order to rank these programs, I reached out to several tutoring acquaintances who had used these programs. I first analyzed the results via a pearson effect size, comparing the study results with the multi-sensory number. The higher the effect sizes, the more likely there would be a positive effect for multi-sensory instruction. 

 

The resulting correlation effect size was .31, suggesting there was a small but positive impact for programs that were more multi-sensory. I then repeated this experiment again, but removed all core instruction data and only included studies for dyslexic or at risk readers. The resulting correlation effect size was -.28, which would suggest a small but negative correlation between how multi-sensory instruction was and the results for dyslexic students. The mean weighted effect size for programs classified as 1, was .41, the mean weighted effect size for programs classified as 2, was .41. The mean weighted effect size for programs classified as 3, was .69. The mean weighted average for all phonics programs was .42. (If you want to know how the individual effect sizes were calculated, you can find more information here: https://www.teachingbyscience.com/a-meta-analysis-of-language-programs

One reliability concern I have with this data was the inclusion of the Jolly Phonics data in the 3 classification, as the mean ES for Jolly phonics was 3.96 times higher than the mean for the other programs included in that classification. Indeed if we remove the Jolly Phonics program data the level 3 classification has a mean result of .25, making it the lowest results. Moreover, the Pearson correlation becomes -.02, suggesting that there is no meaningful correlation whatsoever. Another concern for me is the overall subjectivity of the coding, because programs are ranked on a sliding scale, the coding is automatically more subjective. However, I did not think a yes/no coding would have been accurate and I did my best to code the programs based on user testimony. Ultimately, I think this analysis would suggest that there is weak statistical evidence for the efficacy of multisensory instruction, for core instruction. Moreover, I think it suggests that there is weak evidence against the use of multi-sensory instruction for dyslexic students.  

 

One final caveat, I want to make to this analysis is that it is not peer reviewed. The peer review process is an important part for determining what is science and what is not. At the time of writing this analysis, I did not feel there was any peer-reviewed piece that could authoritatively answer this question, I had hoped that this research could contribute towards proving whether or not we should teach phonics with a multi-sensory approach. However, after conducting this research, I do not feel that the current body of evidence can be used to make any firm conclusions either way. That being said, I recently spoke to the esteemed Dr. Graham, who has told me that he is currently working on an extensive meta-analysis of the topic. He hypothesized that multi-sensory instruction would show a slight positive benefit due to the increased methods of instruction, but not due to the sensory or tactile elements. With this in mind, I will likely change my position, once that meta-analysis is complete. Though, as it currently stands, I do not think there is a strong scientific argument for or against multi-sensory instruction. 

 

While researching for this topic, I noticed two very popular claims that were often made with great conviction: 

 

1 That multi-sensory instruction was a necessary component in proper phonics instruction.

2. That multi-sensory instruction was especially useful for dyslexic students. 

 

As far as I can tell, the scientific evidence for both claims is weak. There are several phonics program studies that include little to no multi-sensory instruction and show high results, as well as several phonics program studies that include lots of multi-sensory instruction and show low results. If multi-sensory instruction was necessary for student learning, we should not see phonics studies without multi-sensory elements showing high results. Similarly, my data analysis conducted for this showed a negative correlation effect for teaching dyslexic students with multi-sensory methods. Indeed multi-sensory studies on core instruction showed significantly higher results. One possible hypothesis I could offer to explain this is that dyslexic students may require more explicit and specific instruction to learn how to read than do non-dyslexic students. Whereas, non-dyslexic students may be able to better benefit from the engaging elements of multi-sensory instruction. 

 

Written by Nathaniel Hansford

Last Edited 2022-06-09

 

References: 

Other Meta-Analyses:


 

 NRP. (2001). Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence Based Assessment of the Scientific Literature on Reading Instruction. United States Government. Retrieved from <https://www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/report.pdf>. 

 

Stevens, E. A., Austin, C., Moore, C., Scammacca, N., Boucher, A. N., & Vaughn, S. (2021). Current State of the Evidence: Examining the Effects of Orton-Gillingham Reading Interventions for Students With or at Risk for Word-Level Reading Disabilities. Exceptional Children, 87(4), 397–417. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402921993406

 

LLI: 

Center for Research Policy in Education. (2012). Efficacy of the Leveled Literacy Intervention System for K–2 Urban Students: An Empirical Evaluation of LLI in Denver Public Schools Study Dates: 2011–2012. University of Memphis. Retrieved from <https://www.fountasandpinnell.com/shared/resources/FP_LLI_Research_CREP-LLI-Efficacy-Full-Report-2012.pdf>. 

 

Center for Research Policy in Education. (2010). Implementation of Effective Intervention: An Empirical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Fountas & Pinnell’s Leveled Literacy Intervention System (LLI) Retrieved from <https://www.fountasandpinnell.com/shared/resources/FP_LLI_Research_CREP-LLI-Efficacy-Full-Report-2010.pdf>. 

 

Center for Research Policy in Education. (2016). The Efficacy of the Leveled Literacy Intervention System for Students in Grades 3–5: Data Summary Report for Abilene Independent School District 2015–2016. University of Memphis. Retrieved from <https://www.fountasandpinnell.com/shared/resources/LLI%203-5%202015_16-AISD_FULL_REPORT-web.pdf>. 


 

 

 

Center for Research Policy in Education. (2015). The Efficacy of the Leveled Literacy Intervention System for Students in Grades 3–5: Data Summary Report for Denver Public Schools 2015–2016. University of Memphis. Retrieved from <https://www.fountasandpinnell.com/shared/resources/LLI%203-5%202015_16-DPS_FULL_REPORT-web.pdf>. 

 

Center for Research Policy in Education. (2016). The Efficacy of the Leveled Literacy

 

Intervention System for Students in Grades 3–5: Data Summary Report for Sandwich Public Schools 2015–2016. University of Memphis. Retrieved from <https://www.fountasandpinnell.com/shared/resources/LLI%203-5%202015_16-SPS_FULL_REPORT-web.pdf>. 

 

Heinmann. (2010). Levelled Literacy Intervention, Research and Data Collection Project. Fountas and Pinnell. Retrieved from <https://www.fountasandpinnell.com/shared/resources/FP_LLI_Research_Research-and-Data-Collection-Project-Report.pdf>. 

 

Gonzalez, et al. (2018). Challenges in Adolescent Reading Intervention: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial. Mathmatica Policy Research. Retrieved from <https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED587404.pdf>.  

 

Lang, Laura & Torgesen, Joseph & Vogel, William & Chanter, Carol & Lefsky, Evan & Petscher, Yaacov. (2009). Exploring the Relative Effectiveness of Reading Interventions for High School Students. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. 2. 149-175. 10.1080/19345740802641535. 

 

Metz, Tracie Jean, "A case study: Effects of using leveled literacy intervention on fourth and fifth grade students' reading achievement" (2014). ETD Collection for Fayetteville State University. AAI3581423.

 

https://digitalcommons.uncfsu.edu/dissertations/AAI3581423


 

 

 

J, Majewski. (2018). The effects of a leveled literacy inter acy intervention  (LLI) on elementary age students reading below grade level. Rowan University. Retrieved from <https://rdw.rowan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3574&context=etd>. 

 

J, Hattie. (2021). Visible Learning Metax. Retrieved from <www.visiblelearningmetax.com>. 

 

N, Hansford. (2021). Morphology. Pedagogy Non Grata. Retrieved from <https://nathanielhansford.wixsite.com/website/morphology>. 

 

Linnea, et al. (2001). Systematic Phonics Instruction Helps Students Learn to Read: Evidence From the National Reading Panel’s Meta-Analysis. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved from <https://www.dyslexie.lu/JDI_02_02_04.pdf>.

 

Reading Recovery: 

R, Colvin. Reading Recovery Revisited. The School Superintendent Association. Retrieved from <https://aasa.org/SchoolAdministratorArticle.aspx?id=15712>

 

 

 

D’Agostino, J. V., & Harmey, S. J. (2016). An International Meta-Analysis of Reading Recovery. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 21(1), 29–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/10824669.2015.1112746

 

Gardner, J., Sutherland, A., & Meenan-Strain, C. (1998) Reading Recovery in Northern Ireland: The first two years. Belfast, Ireland: Blackstaff.  

 

Schwartz, Robert. (2005). Literacy Learning of At-Risk First-Grade Students in the Reading Recovery Early Intervention.. Journal of Educational Psychology. 97. 257-267. 10.1037/0022-0663.97.2.257.  

 

Sirinides, P., Gray, A., & May, H. (2018). The Impacts of Reading Recovery at Scale: Results From the 4-Year i3 External Evaluation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 40(3), 316–335. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373718764828 

 

Burroughs-Lange, S. (2008). Comparison of literacy progress of young children in London Schools: A RR Follow-Up Study.London, UK: Institute of Education. Retrieved from https://www.ioe.ac.uk/Comparison_of_Literacy_Progress_of_Young_Children_in_London_Schools_-_A_Reading_Recovery_Follow_up_Study_.pdf

 

Hurry, J., & Sylva, K. (2007). Long-term outcomes of early reading intervention. Journal of Research in Reading, 30(3), 227–248. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2007.00338.x

 

Pinnell, Html & Lyons, Carol & Deford, Diane & Bryk, Anthony & Seltzer, Michael. (1994). Comparing Instructional Models for the Literacy Education of High-Risk First Graders. 

 

Reading Research Quarterly. 29. 10.2307/747736. 

 

Holliman, A.J., and Hurry, J. (2013) The effects of Reading Recovery on children's literacy progress and Special Educational Needs status: A three-year follow-up study. Educational Psychology, 33(6), pp. 719-733

 

Shanahan, T., & Barr, R. (1995). Reading Recovery: an independent evaluation of the effects of an early instructional intervention for at-risk learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 958–996. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.2307/748206

 

Lyons, C. A. (1988). Reading Recovery: Early intervention for at-risk first graders (Educational Research Service Monograph). Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service. (ERIC Document Reproduction

Service No. ED303790).

 

DeFord, D., Pinnell, G. S., Lyons, C. A., & Young, P. (1987). Reading Recovery program: Report of the follow-up studies

(Vol. VII). Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.

 

Empower Reading: 

 

Lovett, M. W., Frijters, J. C., Wolf, M., Steinbach, K. A., Sevcik, R. A., & Morris, R. D. (2017). Early intervention for children at risk for reading disabilities: The impact of grade at intervention and individual differences on intervention outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(7), 889-914. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000181

 

Jolly Phonics:

Nasrawi, A., & Al-Jamal, D. (2017). The Effect of Using Jolly Phonics on Jordanian First Grade Pupils’ Reading. International Online Journal of Education & Teaching, 4(2), 106–119.

 

Callinan, C., & van der Zee, E. (2010). A comparative study of two methods of synthetic phonics instruction for learning how to read: Jolly Phonics and THRASS. Psychology of Education Review, 34(1), 21–31.

 

M, Stuart. (1999). Getting ready for reading: Early phoneme awareness and phonics teaching improves reading and spelling in inner-city second language learners. British Journal of Psychology. Retrieved from <https://jolly2.s3.amazonaws.com/Research/Getting%20Ready%20for%20Reading.pdf>. 

 

C, Crane, Et, Al. (1999). Improving early language and literacy skills: differential effects of an oral language versus a phonology with reading intervention. University of York. Retrieved from <https://jolly2.s3.amazonaws.com/Research/BowyerCrane%20etal2007proof.pdf>. 

 

L, Farokhbakht. The Effect of Using Multisensory-based Phonics in Teaching Literacy on EFL Young Female/Male Learners' Early Reading Motivation. University of Isfahan. Retrieved from <https://jolly2.s3.amazonaws.com/Research/The%20Effect%20of%20Using%20Multisensory-based%20Phonics%20in%20Teaching%20Literacy%20on%20EFL%20Young%20FemaleMale%20Learners'%20Early%20Reading%20Motivation.pdf>. 

 

N, Katechaiyo, et al. EFFECTS OF JOLLY PHONICS INSTRUCTION FOR PUPIL BOOK 1 ON REDING ABILITY OF THAI EFL YOUNG LEARNERS. Retrieved from <https://jolly2.s3.amazonaws.com/Research/Revealing%20the%20secrets%20of%20remarkable%20improvement%20of%20Thai%20EFL%20young%20learners_Aug.2021.pdf>. 

 

Republic of Gambia. (2009).  IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF INTERVENTIONS ON EARLY GRADE READING ABILITY (EGRA) IN SCHOOLS. Retrieved from <https://www.jollylearning.co.uk/evidence/research/>.  

 

Government of Nigeria. (2014). REPORT ON THE MONITORING EXERCISE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF JOLLY PHONICS APPROACH IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA. Retrieved from <https://s3.amazonaws.com/jolly2/Research/Jolly+Phonics+in+FCT.pdf>. 

 

 

N, Katechaiyo, Et al. EFFECTS OF JOLLY PHONICS INSTRUCTION FOR PUPIL BOOK 1 ON READING ABILITY OF THAI EFL YOUNG LEARNERS. Retrieved from <https://jolly2.s3.amazonaws.com/Research/Revealing%20the%20secrets%20of%20remarkable%20improvement%20of%20Thai%20EFL%20young%20learners_Aug.2021.pdf>. 

 

 

-NRP. (2001). Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence Based Assessment of the Scientific Literature on Reading Instruction. United States Government. Retrieved from <https://www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/report.pdf>.

 

CKLA: 

 

Amplify. (2019). Amplify CKLA AZ grade 5 efficacy research report. Retrieved from <https://amplify.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/CKLA_AZ-grade-5-efficacy-research-report.pdf>.

 

CKLA. (2019). CK Early Literacy Pilot. Retrieved from <https://amplify.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/CKLA-Early-Literacy-Pilot.pdf>. 

 

Cabell, S.Q., White, T.G., Kim, J., Hwang, H., & Gale, C. (2019, December). Impact of the Core Knowledge Language Arts read-aloud program on kindergarteners’ vocabulary, listening comprehension, and general knowledge. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Literacy Research Association, Tampa, FL.

 

Cabell, S. Q., & Hwang, H. (2020). Building Content Knowledge to Boost Comprehension in the Primary Grades. Reading Research Quarterly, 55, S99–S107. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1002/rrq.338

 

Elleman, A.M., Lindo, E.J., Morphy, P., & Compton, D.L. (2009). The impact of vocabulary instruction on passage-level comprehension of school-age children: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(1), 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/1934574080 2539200

 

S, Cabell. (Date not specified).Impact of a content-rich English language arts program on kindergarten students' language and knowledge. Florida State University. Retrieved from <https://www.triplesr.org/impact-content-rich-english-language-arts-program-kindergarten-students-language-and-knowledge>. 

 

 

 

J, Wedman. (2004). Core Knowledge Curriculum and School Performance. University of Missour. Retrieved from <https://www.coreknowledge.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/CK_National_Study_2004.pdf>. 

 

M, Abele. (2000). CORE KNOWLEDGE CURRICULUMFive-Year Analysis of Implementation and Effects in Five Maryland Schools. John Hopkins University. 

 

Retrieved from <https://www.coreknowledge.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/FiveYearEffects_Maryland_2000.pdf>.

 

Wilson: 

Wilson. (2022) Fundation. Retrieved from <https://www.wilsonlanguage.com/programs/fundations/>. 

 

 

Fritts, J. L. (2016). Direct instruction and Orton-Gillingham reading methodologies:

Effectiveness of increasing reading achievement of elementary school students with learning

disabilities (Publication No. 10168236) [Master’s thesis, Northeastern University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Reuter, 

 

H. B. (2006). Phonological awareness instruction for middle school students with disabilities:

A scripted multisensory intervention (Publication No. 3251867) [Master’s thesis,University of Oregon]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

 

Torgesen, J., Schirm, A., Castner, L., Vartivarian, S., Mansfield, W., Myers, D., Stancavage,

F., Durno, D., Javorsky, R., & Haan, C. (2007). National assessment of Title I: Final

report. Volume II. Closing the reading gap: Findings from a randomized trial of four reading

interventions for striving readers (NCEE 2008-4013). National Center for Education

Evaluation and Regional Assistance. https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pdf/20084013.pdf

 

Wanzek, J., & Roberts, G. (2012). Reading interventions with varying instructional emphases

for fourth graders with reading difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(2), 90–101.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948711434047

 

Reading SImplified: 

Bratsch-Hines, M., Vernon-Feagans, L., Pedonti, S., & Varghese, C. (2020). Differential Effects of the Targeted Reading Intervention for Students With Low Phonological Awareness and/or Vocabulary. Learning Disability Quarterly, 43(4), 214–226. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/073194871985868

 

 

 

Aiken. (2020). Targeted Reading Intervention Teacher Certification: An Approach to Building and Sustaining Teacher Expertise in Rural Schools. Literacy Research and Instruction., 59(4), 346–369.

 

Amendum, S. J., Bratsch, H. M., & Vernon, F. L. (2018). Investigating the Efficacy of a Web‐Based Early Reading and Professional Development Intervention for Young English Learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(2), 155–174. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1002/rrq.188

 

Vernon-Feagans, L., Gallagher, K., Ginsberg, M. C., Amendum, S., Kainz, K., Rose, J., & Burchinal, M. (2010). A Diagnostic Teaching Intervention for Classroom Teachers: Helping Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice (Wiley-Blackwell), 25(4), 183–193. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2010.00316.x

 

Vernon-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Amendum, S., Ginsberg, M., Wood, T., & Bock, A. (2012). Targeted Reading Intervention: A Coaching Model to Help Classroom Teachers With Struggling Readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(2), 102–114. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948711434048

 

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The Effectiveness of a Technologically Facilitated Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention. Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 107–131.

 

Vernon-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Amendum, S., Ginsberg, M., Wood, T., & Bock, A. (2012). Targeted Reading Intervention: A Coaching Model to Help Classroom Teachers With Struggling Readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35(2), 102–114. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1177/0731948711434048

 

 Vernon-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Ginsberg, M., Hedrick, A., & Amendum, S. (2013). Live Webcam Coaching to Help Early Elementary Classroom Teachers Provide Effective Literacy Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(4), 1175–1187. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1037/a0032143

 

HMH

The Learning Company. (2020). HMH Into Reading Implementation Study Research Study Results 2019-2020. Retrieved from <https://s3.amazonaws.com/prod-hmhco-vmg-craftcms-public/research/Research-Results-Paper-Into-Reading-2019-2020-SY.pdf>. 

 

R, Eddy, Et al. (2020). QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. Cobblestone. Retrieved from <https://s3.amazonaws.com/prod-hmhco-vmg-craftcms-public/research/HMH-Into-Reading-ESSA-Tier-2-QED-Study-Report.pdf>. 


 

Filderman, M. J., Austin, C. R., Boucher, A. N., O’Donnell, K., & Swanson, E. A. (2022). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Reading Comprehension Interventions on the Reading Comprehension Outcomes of Struggling Readers in Third Through 12th Grades. Exceptional Children, 88(2), 163–184. https://doi.org/10.1177/00144029211050860

 

Rewards:

C, Buttler. (2013). The impact of REWARDS on reading skills of students with learning disabilities. California State University. <https://digitalcommons.csumb.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1402&context=caps_thes>.


 

M, Shippen. (2004). A Comparison of Two Direct Instruction Reading Programs for Urban Middle School Students. Remedial and Special Education. Retrieved from <http://mathenrich.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/52804182/AComparison.pdf>. 

 

Anita Archer, Mary Gleason, and Vicky Vachon. (No known date). Unidentified RCT Study. Broken link: <https://fcrr.org/FCRRReports/PDF/RewardsPlus.pdf>. 

 

I, Klee. (2015). The Effect Using the REWARDS® Reading Program on Vowel Sounds, Word Part, and Prefix and Suffix Identification in Multi-Syllabic Words: A Case Report. Education Research Quarterly. Retrieved from <https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1061951>. 

 

R, Autzen. (2021). REWARDS: A Reading Intervention Program to Address Grade Level Reading Ability. Undergraduate Scholarly Showcase Proceedings. Retrieved from <https://journals.uc.edu/index.php/Undergradshowcase/article/view/4582/3456>. 

 

R, Kerl. (2018). Timing is Everything: Adapting Rewards Intermediate For 4th And 5th Grade Striving Readers. Hamline University. Retrieved from <https://digitalcommons.hamline.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5436&context=hse_all>. 

 

The Learning Company. (2020). HMH Into Reading Implementation Study Research Study Results 2019-2020. Retrieved from <https://s3.amazonaws.com/prod-hmhco-vmg-craftcms-public/research/Research-Results-Paper-Into-Reading-2019-2020-SY.pdf>.  

 

 

R, Eddy, Et al. (2020). QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. Cobblestone. Retrieved from <https://s3.amazonaws.com/prod-hmhco-vmg-craftcms-public/research/HMH-Into-Reading-ESSA-Tier-2-QED-Study-Report.pdf>. 

 

Filderman, M. J., Austin, C. R., Boucher, A. N., O’Donnell, K., & Swanson, E. A. (2022). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Reading Comprehension Interventions on the Reading Comprehension Outcomes of Struggling Readers in Third Through 12th Grades. Exceptional Children, 88(2), 163–184. https://doi.org/10.1177/00144029211050860

 

SPIRE: 

 M, Gallagher. (2019). S.P.I.R.E. Intensive Reading Intervention: A Comparative Analysis at Second Through Sixth. Spire. Retrieved from <https://eps.schoolspecialty.com/EPS/media/Site-Resources/Downloads/research-papers/Study-Intensive-Reading-Intervention-Gallagher-2019-SPIRE.pdf>. 

 

M, Wilger. (2008). Spring Independent SchoolDistrict (ISD),TX 2007-2008 SchoolYear. Auto Skill International. Retrieved from <https://eps.schoolspecialty.com/EPS/media/Site-Resources/Downloads/studies/ES_Spring_TX.pdf>. 

 

 A, Grippi. (2006). Teaching the Disruptive Child to Read: An Evaluation of the SPIRE Reading Program. International Journal of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved from <https://eps.schoolspecialty.com/EPS/media/Site-Resources/Downloads/Miscellaneous/spire/teaching-the-disruptive-child.pdf?ext=.pdf>.

 

Words Their Way:

 

Eddy, R. M., Ruitman, T., Hankel, N., Matelski, M. H. & Schmalstig, M. (2011). Pearson Words Their Way: Word Study in Action Intervention Efficacy Study Final Report.

ELL Toolbox. (2022). Words Their Way. Retrieved from <http://www.elltoolbox.com/words-their-way.html#.YhW4XujMLIV>.

 

Take Flight: 

Ring, J., Avrit, K., Black, J., Ring, J. J., Avrit, K. J., & Black, J. L. (2017). Take Flight: the evolution of an Orton Gillingham-based curriculum. Annals of Dyslexia, 67(3), 383–400. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1007/s11881-017-0151-9

 

Wonders: 

McGraw Hill. (2016). Champaign Community Schools scores on NWEA MAP® reading assessment increased significantly from fall 2015 to spring 2016. Retrieved from <https://s3.amazonaws.com/ecommerce-prod.mheducation.com/unitas/school/explore/sites/wonders/efficacy-and-success-brochure.pdf>. 

 

McGraw Hill. (2016). California ELA Test Score Analysis: Wonders Research Report. Retrieved from <https://s3.amazonaws.com/ecommerce-prod.mheducation.com/unitas/school/explore/sites/wonders/efficacy-and-success-brochure.pdf>.

 

Lexia:

Rachel Schechter, Paul Macaruso, Elizabeth R. Kazakoff & Elizabeth Brooke (2015) Exploration of a Blended Learning Approach to Reading Instruction for Low SES Students in Early Elementary Grades, Computers in the Schools, 32:3-4, 183-200, DOI: 10.1080/07380569.2015.1100652

 

Macaruso, P., Hook, P. E., & McCabe, R. (2006). The efficacy of computer-based supplementary phonics programs for advancing reading skills in at-risk elementary students. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(2), 162–172. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00282.x

 

Macaruso, P., & Rodman, A. (2011). Efficacy of Computer-Assisted Instruction for the Development of Early Literacy Skills in Young Children. Reading Psychology, 32(2), 172–196. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/02702711003608071 

 

Hurwitz, L.B. (2020). Supporting Struggling and Non-Proficient Middle School Readers with the Lexia PowerUp Literacy Program. Concord, MA: Lexia Learning Systems LLC, A Rosetta Stone Company

 

S, Wilkes, Et al. (2016). Exploration of a Blended Lerning Approach to Reading Instruction in Second Grade. Edmedia. Retrieved from <https://www.lexialearning.com/user_area/content_media/raw/EdMediaPresentation_TitleI.pdf>. 

 

Macaruso, P., & Walker, A. (2008). The Efficacy of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Advancing Literacy Skills in Kindergarten Children. Reading Psychology, 29(3), 266–287. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/02702710801982019

 

Schechter, R., Macaruso, P., Kazakoff, E.R. and Brooke, E. (2015). Exploration of a blended learning approach to reading instruction for low SES students in early elementary grades. Computers in the Schools, 32, 183–200.

 

Macaruso, P., & Rodman, A. (2011). Benefits of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Support Reading Acquisition in English Language Learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 34(3), 301–315. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/15235882.2011.622829

 

Paul Macaruso & Alyson Rodman (2009) Benefits of computer‐assisted instruction for struggling readers in middle school, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24:1, 103-113, DOI: 10.1080/08856250802596774 

 

Feng, L., Lindner, A., Ji, X. R., & Malatesha Joshi, R. (2019). The roles of handwriting and keyboarding in writing: a meta-analytic review. Reading & Writing, 32(1), 33–63. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1007/s11145-017-9749-x 

 

Ehri, Linnea & Nunes, Simone & Willows, Dale & Schuster, Barbara & Yaghoub-Zadeh, Zohreh & Shanahan, Timothy. (2001). Phonemic Awareness Instruction Helps Children Learn to Read: Evidence From the National Reading Panel's Meta-Analysis. Reading Research Quarterly. 36. 250-287. 10.1598/RRQ.36.3.2.  

 

Elleman, A.M., Lindo, E.J., Morphy, P., & Compton, D.L. (2009). The impact of vocabulary instruction on passage-level comprehension of school-age children: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(1), 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/1934574080 2539200 

 

HMH. (2022). Research Into Reading Research Foundations. Retrieved from <https://www.hmhco.com/research/hmh-into-reading-research-foundations>. 


 

-NRP. (2001). Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence Based Assessment of the Scientific Literature on Reading Instruction. United States Government. Retrieved from <https://www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/report.pdf>.

 

 

Voyageur Sopris. (2022). Reading Intervention. Retrieved from <https://www.voyagersopris.com/literacy/rewards/overview>.

 

Open Court: 

Skindrud, K., & Gersten, R. (2006). An Evaluation of Two Contrasting Approaches for Improving Reading Achievement in a Large Urban District. Elementary School Journal, 106(5), 389–407. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1086/505437

 

Stockard, J. (2010). Promoting Reading Achievement and Countering the “Fourth-Grade Slump”: The Impact of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement in Fifth Grade. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 15(3), 218–240. https://doi.org/10.1080/10824669.2010.495687

 

Vaden-Kiernan, M., Borman, G., Caverly, S., Bell, N., Sullivan, K., Ruiz de Castilla, V., Fleming, G., Rodriguez, D., Henry, C., Long, T., & Hughes Jones, D. (2018). Findings From a Multiyear Scale-Up Effectiveness Trial of Open Court Reading. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11(1), 109–132. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1080/19345747.2017.1342886

 

 Borman, G. D., Dowling, N. M., & Schneck, C. (2008). A Multisite Cluster Randomized Field Trial of Open Court Reading. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(4), 389–407. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373708326283

 

Remediation Plus: 

Corcoran, R., & Ross, S.M. (2015). An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Remediation Plus Program on Improving Reading Achievement of Students in the Marinette (WI) School District.

 

Spelling Mastery:

Darch, C., Eaves, R. C., Crowe, D. A., Simmons, K., & Conniff, A. (2006). Teaching spelling to students with learning disabilities: A comparison of rule-based strategies versus traditional instruction. Journal of Direct Instruction, 6(1), 1–16.


 

Darch, C., & Simpson, R. G. (1990). Effectiveness of visual imagery versus rule-based strategies in teaching spelling to learning disabled students. Research in Rural Education, 7(1), 61–70.

 

Reading Mastery:

 

C, Schieffer. (2002). An Analysis of the Reading Mastery Program: Effective Components and Research Review. Journal of Direct Instruction. Volume 2: Issue 2. Retrieved from <https://www.nifdi.org/research/journal-of-di/volume-2-no-2-summer-2002/442-an-analysis-of-the-reading-mastery-program-effective-components-and-research-review/file.html>. 

 

 

 

Yu, L., & Rachor, R. (2000, April). The two-year evaluation of the three-year Direct Instruction program, in an urban public school system. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

 

O'Connor, R. E., Jenkins, J. R., Cole, K. N., & Mills, P. E. (1993). Two approaches to reading instruction with children with disabilities: does program design make a difference?. Exceptional children, 59(4), 312–323. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440299305900404

 

The Development of Early Academic Success: The Impact of Direct Instruction’s Reading Mastery. (2010). Journal of Behavior Assessment & Intervention in Children, 1(1), 2–24. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lakeheadu.ca/10.1037/h0100357

 

Corrective Reading: 

Benner, G. J., Michael, E., Ralston, N. C., & Lee, E. O. (2022). The impact of supplemental word recognition strategies on students with reading difficulties. International Journal of Instruction, 15(1) 837-856. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2022.15148a. 

 

Benner, Gregory & Kinder, Diane & Beaudoin, Kathleen & Stein, Marcy. (2005). The Effects of the "Corrective Reading Decoding" Program on the Basic Reading Skills and Social Adjustment of Students with High-Incidence Disabilities. Journal of Direct Instruction.


Lloyd, J., Cullinan, D., Heins, E. D., & Epstein, M. H. (1980). Direct Instruction: Effects on Oral and Written Language Comprehension. Learning Disability Quarterly, 3(4), 70–76. https://doi.org/10.2307/1510677